By Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb
Quantity 7 within the well-established sequence "Advances in Electrochemical technological know-how and Engineering" covers - between others - vital subject matters on electrodeposition. As in all past volumes, the editors have succeeded in making a choice on hugely topical components of electrochemical learn and in featuring authors who're leaders of their fields. the result's a compelling set of reports which serves both good as a very good and updated resource of knowledge for knowledgeable researchers lively within the box in addition to an creation for novices. From reports of the former volumes: 'This is an important booklet for researchers in electrochemistry; it covers parts of either primary and useful value, with reports of top quality. the fabric is particularly good provided and the alternative of issues displays a balanced editorial coverage that's welcomed.' The Analyst 'All the contributions during this quantity are good as much as the normal of this wonderful sequence and should be of serious worth to electrochemists... The editors back need to be congratulated in this tremendous choice of reviews.' magazine of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Chemistry '...competently and obviously written.' Berichte der Bunsen- Gesellschaft fur Physikalische Chemie
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Extra resources for Advances in Electrochemical Science and Engineering
30 John L. Stickney Using such negative potentials did result in reasonable deposits, overall they were stoichiometric, displayed the expected XRD patterns without annealing, and showing linear growth vs. the number of cycles (after the ®rst few). Deposit morphologies appeared ok but probably not optimal, understandable given 3D growth during the ®rst few cycles. Initially, these excessive currents were attributed to oxygen in the solution in the tubes. After the ®rst few cycles, purged solution ®lled the tubes, and the currents dropped.
For some elements, there are a variety of possible precursors, sulfur for instance (Figure 11). Use of metal-organic precursors, used in MOMBE or MOVPE, are possible if they are soluble in water, or a nonaqueous solvent is used. Mixed aqueousorganic solvents could improve solubility. Overall, there would be an increased probability of carbon contamination, however. One of the bene®ts of using inorganic salts in aqueous solutions is that the number of constituents is limited, and thus the 26 John L.
1 Reactants The choice of reactant has to do with whether you want to perform oxidative or reductive UPD, oxidation state, solubility, availability, purity, and price. In general, salts are used, simplifying solution preparation. Gases can be used by saturating the solution prior to pumping. Reactants can also be generated electrochemically, prior to pumping, or generator electrodes can be incorporated into the cell, so a precursor could be generated on the opposite wall of the cell, and allowed to di¨use across the thin solution layer to deposit.
Advances in Electrochemical Science and Engineering by Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb