By Frank L. Smith III
Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide protection in view that no less than international battle II. traditionally, even if, the U.S. army has overlooked learn, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the U.S. begun spending billions of greenbacks consistent with 12 months on clinical countermeasures and organic detection platforms. yet such a lot of this investment now comes from the dept of future health and Human prone instead of the dept of safety. Why has the U.S. army missed biodefense and allowed civilian companies to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this perplexing and mostly untold tale approximately technology, expertise, and nationwide security.
Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have brought on either army forget and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed prone, influential principles approximately kinetic struggle have undermined protection opposed to organic war. The impression of those principles on technological know-how and expertise demanding situations the normal knowledge that nationwide protection coverage is pushed through threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the guidelines at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings realized from biodefense may also help resolve different vital difficulties that diversity from radiation guns to cyber attacks.
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Additional info for American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security
89 This same assumption survived the end of the Cold War, leaving the Army unprepared to counter insurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan. 90 And long before counterinsurgency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan were over, the Navy and Air Force were emulating the Army after Vietnam and adopting the “similarly designed” concept of Air-Sea Battle for conflict with China. 91 Of course, my characterization of the military’s kinetic frame is not beyond reproach. One critique is that the armed services perform several nonkinetic functions.
3 But not the United States. 4 The idea that biological weapons were a credible threat therefore gained little if any traction inside the US military until the eve of World War II. It was August 1941 before the special assistant to the secretary of war arranged a meeting about BW and biodefense. This meeting was prompted by requests by Simmons and the Army surgeon general, who wanted to study “all aspects of biological warfare, in order to provide adequate protection of troops against this type of attack,” even though they opposed involvement with offensive development.
And how might these ideas affect military biodefense? The Military’s Kinetic Frame of Reference I posit that the military’s dominant frame of reference has been constructed around kinetic warfare. In abstract, kinetic warfare involves the rapid transfer of energy through mass in motion. In practice, it is interpreted or understood as the work done by projectile weapons and explosives. The defining characteristics of these weapons are (1) how they cause damage, and (2) how quickly they do so. Projectiles and explosives inflict abrupt physical trauma—blunt and penetrating—to both people and matériel.
American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security by Frank L. Smith III