By Dougal Drysdale(auth.)
Chapter 1 hearth technological know-how and Combustion (pages 1–34):
Chapter 2 warmth move (pages 35–82):
Chapter three Limits of Flammability and Premixed Flames (pages 83–119):
Chapter four Diffusion Flames and hearth Plumes (pages 121–179):
Chapter five regular Burning of beverages and Solids (pages 181–223):
Chapter 6 Ignition: The Initiation of Flaming Combustion (pages 225–275):
Chapter 7 unfold of Flame (pages 277–315):
Chapter eight Spontaneous Ignition inside Solids and Smouldering Combustion (pages 317–348):
Chapter nine The Pre?Flashover Compartment hearth (pages 349–386):
Chapter 10 The Post?Flashover Compartment hearth (pages 387–439):
Chapter eleven Smoke: Its Formation, Composition and circulation (pages 441–474):
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Additional info for An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, Third Edition
R8). R7), HR4 = Hc (C3 H8 ) and HR8 = Hc (CO). 2 kJ/mol). The techniques of thermochemistry provide essential information about the amount of heat liberated during a combustion process that has gone to completion. In principle, a correction can be made if the reaction is incomplete, although the large number of products of incomplete combustion that are formed in fires make this approach cumbersome, and effectively unworkable. 2). 4), taking an appropriate value of m ˙ and assuming a value for χ to account for incomplete combustion, but an experimental method is now available by which Q˙ c can be determined.
3 kJ/mol. R9): the combustion energy raises the temperature of the products CO2 , H2 O and N2 , whose final temperatures can be calculated if heat capacities of these species are known. 17). It is assumed that nitrogen is not involved in the chemical reaction but acts only as ‘thermal ballast’, absorbing a major share of the combustion energy. R9)). 5 assuming an initial temperature of 25◦ C. The result of this calculation is approximate for the following reasons: Tf = 25 + (i) The thermal capacity of each gas is a function of temperature, and for simplicity the values used here refer to an intermediate temperature (1000 K).
9). For simplicity, when the ideal gas law is used, pressure should be expressed in atmospheres as data available in the literature (particularly on the vapour pressures of liquids) are presented in a variety of units, including kN/m2 (or kPa), mm of mercury (mmHg) and bars, all easily converted to atmospheres. 10. 5) incorporates the laws of Boyle (PV = constant at constant temperature) and Gay-Lussac (V /T = constant at constant pressure), and Avogadro’s hypothesis, which states that equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules (or atoms, in the case of an atomic gas such as helium).
An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, Third Edition by Dougal Drysdale(auth.)