By Jean Audouze, Sylvie Vauclair (auth.)
TO NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS The Formation and the Evolution of subject within the Universe JEAN AUDOUZE lnstitut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France and SYLVIE VA UCLAI R DAPHE, Ohservatoire de Meudon, France and lnstitut d'Astrophysique, Paris D, REIDEL PUBLISHING corporation DORDRECHT: HOLLAND/BOSTON: U. S. A. LONDON: ENGLAND Library of Congre~ Cataloging in e-book information Audouzc. Jean An advent to nuclear astrophysics. (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs; v. 18) En!. and up to date translation of L'Astrophysique nuclt\aire. contains bibliographies and index. \. Nuclear astrophysics. I. Vauclair, Sylvie, joint writer. II. name. III. sequence. QB464. A9313 1979 523. 01'9'7 79-20752 ISBN-13: 978-90-277-1053-6 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-9477-5 DO I: 10. 1007/978-94-009-9477-5 released by means of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, P. O. field 17. Dordrecht, Holland bought and allotted within the U. S. A. , Canada, and Mexico through D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Inc. Lincoln construction. a hundred and sixty outdated Derby highway, Hingham, Mass. 02043, U. S. A. All Rights Reserved Copyright © 1980 by way of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Dordrecht, Holland Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st variation 1980 No a part of the fabric secure by means of this copyright discover could be reproduced or used in any shape or whatsoever, digital or mechanical, together with photocopying, recording or by way of any informational garage and retrieval method, with no written permission from the copyright proprietor desk OF CONTENTS IX FOREWORD advent xi XXI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS bankruptcy I / THE OBSERVATIONAL foundation OF NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS 1. 1. the significance of the 4 basic Interactions 1 1. 2.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics: The Formation and the Evolution of Matter in the Universe
IILl. Techniques for Abundance Detennination The techniques which are used for abundance determination can be divided into (1-1) the direct methods in which a given sample of material is collected and analyzed, and (1-2) the indirect methods where the composition of the matter is determined through its outcome such as the radiation it emits or absorbs. I. THE DIRECT METHODS To apply such methods an actual way of collecting matter must operate. For the moment this applies to four different pieces of material: terrestrial samples, lunar samples which have been collected either by astronauts or by automatic methods, meteoritic samples, and cosmic rays.
1. The Origin of the Universe It is now generally believed that our Universe originated some 1010 yr ago in a singular event which is referred to as the 'Big Bang'. This theory is based on the following fundamental observations: (a) The spectral analysis of the radiation emitted by galaxies shows that all the absorption lines are redshifted (shifted to longer wavelengths, or lower frequencies). Interpreted as a Doppler effect, this observation suggests that the galaxies are moving away from us.
3) Among different galaxies, the metal content seems to vary; for instance, the two satellites of our Galaxy, the Small and the Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC) have a metallic abundance lower than that of our Galaxy. The effect is more pronounced for the SMC than for the LMC. This seems to be related to a lower rate of star formation (Chapter IX) for these two galaxies. * For instance, the abundances of the heavy elements with proton rich nuclei can only be determined in the solar system.
An Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics: The Formation and the Evolution of Matter in the Universe by Jean Audouze, Sylvie Vauclair (auth.)