By Bernhard Sonnleitner
With contributions by means of various specialists
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Additional resources for Bioanalysis and Biosensors for Bioprocess Monitoring
24). Properties of whole cells such as size and shape can be Fig. 24. Schematic design of a flow cytometer. The exciting light is created by one or more laser sources which is focused by means of mirrors and lenses to a small measuring space (typically in the order of the particles to analyze) in the flow channel. Whenever a particle passes this space, extinction, forward or side scatter of light, or emission of fluorescent light occurs. These different light qualities are separated by lenses and mirrors and quantified by detectors (usually photomultipliers) mounted in appropriate positions.
What is relevant? The relaxation time concept of Harder and Roels  (Fig. 28) maps typical time constants of microbial and cellular control on the level of modification of enzymes (activation, inhibition, dis/association of subunits, covalent modification or digestion) to the range of ms to s, on the level of regulation of gene expression (induction, repression or derepression of transcription) to min, on the level of population selection and evolution to days and larger units. The examples discussed below will clear up how bioengineering is facing the individual time constants.
113] compared FIA with an in situ enzyme electrode during continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FIA is also useful in environmental sciences such as water monitoring [8, 464] and has become increasingly important in downstream processing [59, 278]. FIA has been applied to detect microorganisms indirectly by measuring the concentration of a mediator which is reduced by the organisms . Amino acids, such as L-lysine, have been measured [53, 326] and even intracellular enzymes can be determined on-line [5, 380].
Bioanalysis and Biosensors for Bioprocess Monitoring by Bernhard Sonnleitner