Get Biochemical Actions of Hormones. Volume 8 PDF

By Gerald Litwack

ISBN-10: 0124528082

ISBN-13: 9780124528086

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Given the fact that these cells are rich in mitochondria, the question arises as to how the calcium message generated at the baso-lateral membranes is transmitted from these membranes to its response element the luminal membrane. The answer appears to be that the increase in [cAMP] serves to alter the ability of the mitochondria to accumulate calcium hence the domain of the calcium signal is extended sufficiently in the spatial domain to account for response. Furthermore, as long as secretion is sustained it seems likely that the cytosolic calcium ion content remains high.

Adenylate Cyclase. The hormonal stimulation of the adenylate cyclase of the plasmalemma is believed to be responsible for activation of the cAMP second messenger system. That Ca2+ might be involved in its regulation was suggested by Birnbaumer (1973) who demonstrated that the adenylate cyclase derived from a variety of tissues was strongly inhibited by low concentrations of Ca2+. Brain tissue on the other hand has been shown to possess adenylate cyclase activity which exhibits a biphasic response to Ca2+; low Ca2+ concentrations activate and higher concentrations inhibit the enzyme.

The secondary structure of calmodulin has been examined by several techniques including CD and ORD. The molecule consists of approximately 40% a helix, 18% ß pleated sheet, and 42% random coil in the presence of Ca2+ (Klee, 1977). The changes in calmodulin secondary structure due to Ca2+ binding have been reported by several investigators. While discrepancies appear to exist as to the content of a helix in the secondary structure of the molecule there is general consensus that Ca2+ binding increases the content of a helix (Table III).

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Biochemical Actions of Hormones. Volume 8 by Gerald Litwack


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