By Paul F. Torrence
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Additional info for Biological Response Modifiers. New Approaches to Disease Intervention
28 Margaret I. Johnston 3. B Lymphocytes In contrast to Τ cells, Β cells develop independently of the thymus. PreB cells contain intracellular immunoglobulin heavy chains, but no receptors for antigen, and as with Τ cells, the early stages of differentiation are independent of antigen. Differentiation to m a t u r e Β cells occurs in the bursa of fabricius in the chicken, and in bone m a r r o w in h u m a n s . Mature Β cells carry a diverse array of m e m b r a n e glycoproteins, including m e m b r a n e - b o u n d immunoglobulins that are receptors for antigen.
In some cases, particularly those that result in the production of many antibodies with the same idiotype, helper Τ cells interact with Β cells through recognition by the T-cell receptor of the idiotype expressed on the B-cell immunoglobulin m e m b r a n e receptor. These Τ cells are referred to as immunoglobulin-specific helper Τ cells (IgTh). The result of their interaction with Β cells is a selective stimulation of the growth and differentiation of Β cells that express that particular idiotype.
In this capacity, they are often referred to as accessory cells. After phagocytosis, a portion of the foreign organism is reexpressed at the surface of the cell. The process involves more than simple passive adherence of the antigen to the cell surface, and recent evidence suggests that reexpression of the foreign determinants on the cell surface requires internalization and proteolytic digestion. The result is that foreign antigenic determinant(s) are " p r e s e n t e d " on the cell surface and can be recognized by certain lymphocytes.
Biological Response Modifiers. New Approaches to Disease Intervention by Paul F. Torrence