By James F. Rusling
Examines motion pictures of biomolecules which can offer good surfaces for catalyzing enzyme reactions, serve in biosensors and as biorecognition parts, mediate nanoparticle formation, and supply a easy for primary reports and functions in biomedical units.
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Additional info for Biomolecular Films Design Function and Applications
Catalytic electrochemical oxidation of DNA using transition metal complexes provides enhanced electrochemical signals . Elegant work by Thorp et al. showed that Ru(bpy)2þ 3 is a very e⁄cient electrochemical catalyst that oxidizes only guanine bases in DNA and oligonucleotides [73,74]. The reaction follows the typical catalytic pathway in Scheme 5, and 3þ À RuðbpyÞ2þ 3 ¼ RuðbpyÞ3 þ e 2þ þ RuðbpyÞ3þ 3 þ DNAðguanineÞ ! RuðbpyÞ3 þ DNAðguanine Þ ð17Þ ð18Þ SCHEME 5 DNA(guanineþ ) is subsequently further oxidized .
For details,we refer the reader to recent reviews [66,78], and to the original literature cited therein. The method has been used for many kinetic, mechanistic, and H=D isotope studies of catalysis by native and mutant enzymes [66,85À87]. The most recent studies of thin protein monolayers by voltammetry demonstrate increasingly sophisticated mechanistic resolving power. Examples include low-temperature protein ¢lm cryovoltammetry to resolve complex transformations in ferredoxin electron transfer , and elucidation of an atomically resolved long-range electron-coupled proton transfer in a buried protein redox center .
This work pre¢gured the use of metalloproteinÀsurfactant ¢lms on electrodes for voltammetry. Polymer-stabilized surfactant ¢lms can be made by replacing the counterions of the surfactants with ionic polymers in the casting solutions [147À149]. For example, bromide in DDAB (Fig. 14) can be replaced with polystyrene sulfonate, and the ¢lm can be cast from the resulting surfactantÀpolymer conjugate. Films are structured in multiple bilayers (cf. Fig. 15), with polyions associated with head groups.
Biomolecular Films Design Function and Applications by James F. Rusling