By Gavin Whittaker, Andy Mount, Matthew Heal
Quick Notes titles concentrate on middle details and are designed to aid undergraduate scholars come to grips with an issue fast and simply. rapid Notes in actual Chemistry introduces a number of the features of actual chemistry in an order that offers the chance for non-stop analyzing from entrance to again. The historical past to a variety of very important suggestions is integrated to mirror the large software of the subject material. This ebook presents the foremost to the knowledge and studying of actual chemistry.
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Entropy is a thermodynamic property of a system, denoted as S. It is a state function and is defined in terms of entropy changes rather than its absolute value. For a reversible process at constant temperature, the change in entropy, dS, is given by dS=dqrev/T. For an irreversible process, dS>dq/T. In addition to the thermodynamic definition of entropy, it is also possible to refer to entropy in statistical terms. For any system, the entropy is given by S=kBln(W), where W is the number of possible configurations of the system.
Heat is the transfer of energy as disorderly motion as the result of a temperature difference between the system and its surroundings. Work is the transfer of energy as orderly motion. In mechanical terms, work is due to energy being expended Fig. 1. Examples of an open system (left), a closed system (center) and an isolated system (right). against an opposing force. The total work is equal to the product of the force and the distance moved against it. Work in chemical or biological systems generally manifests itself in only a limited number of forms.
Taking the previous example, sufficient oxygen may be added to both sides of the equation to formally combust the reactants and products (Fig. 3). Fig. 3. Use of the enthalpy of combustion in calculating the enthalpy of a reaction. The overall enthalpy of reaction is unaffected by this alteration, but ∆Hreaction may now be calculated using Hess’s law (note the change of sign as compared to the previous expression): ∆Hreaction=−Σ∆Hc(products)+Σ∆Hc(reactants) The advantage of this method is that enthalpies of combustion are more readily obtained than heats of formation.
BIOS Instant Notes in Physical Chemistry by Gavin Whittaker, Andy Mount, Matthew Heal